## Critical Appraisal Online Course

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# Course presentations

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SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS TO VIEW PRESENTATIONS | |

a | High speed broadband connection |

b | Adobe Reader to view and print the handouts |

APPRAISING METHODS | |

1 | Introduction to evidence-based medicine
Introduction to the course, introduction to the multimedia player, evidence-based medicine, critical appraisal, internal validity, external validity, effectiveness, efficacy. [CA010] |

2 | The clinical question
Understanding the clinical question, primary hypothesis. [CA100] |

3 | Types of studies - Overview
A brief look at the different types of studies. [CA110] |

4 | Observational descriptive studies
Survey, qualitative survey, case report, case series. [CA114] |

5 | Observational analytical studies
Case control study, cohort study. [CA118] |

6 | Experimental studies (interventional)
Open trial, controlled trial, randomised controlled trial, crossover trial, n of 1 trial. [CA122] |

7 | Populations and samples
Population, target population, sample population. [CA130] |

8 | Bias
Bias, selection bias, sampling bias, Berkson bias, diagnostic purity bias, Neyman bias, membership bias, historical control bias, response bias, performance bias, observation bias, interviewer ascertainment bias, recall bias, Hawthorne effect, attrition bias, conflicts of interest. [CA140] |

9 | Confounding factors
Confounding factors, positive confounder, negative confounder, restriction, selection criteria, inclusion criteria, exclusion criteria, matching, randomisation, stratified analysis, multivariate analysis. [CA150] |

10 | Randomisation
Randomisation, simple randomisation, block randomisation, stratified randomisation, concealed allocation. [CA170] |

11 | Blinding
Hawthorne effect, Pygmalion effect, placebo effect, placebo, blinding, single blinding, double blinding, triple blinding, blind assessment. [CA180] |

12 | Reliability and validity
Reliability, inter-rater reliability, intra-rater reliability, test-retest reliability, alternative form reliability, split-half reliability, correlation coefficients, kappa statistic, Cronbach's alpha, intraclass correlation coefficient, validity, criterion validity, predictive validity, concurrent validity, convergent validity, discriminant validity, face validity, content validity, construct validity, incremental validity. [CA190] |

13 | The hierarchy of evidence
Hierarchy of evidence. [CA210] |

UNDERSTANDING RESULTS | |

14 | Intention to treat analysis
Intention to treat analysis, last observation carried forward, per protocol analysis. [CA300] |

15 | Epidemiology
Incidence, mortality rate, standardised mortality rate, standardised mortality ratio, morbidity rate, prevalence, point prevalence, period prevalence, lifetime prevalence. [CA310] |

16 | Types of data
Categorical data, nominal data, ordinal data, quantitative data, discrete data, continuous data, normal distribution, non-normal distribution. [CA320] |

17 | Describing data from one sample
Mode, frequency, median, range, inter-quartile range, mean, standard deviation, standard error, confidence intervals. [CA330] |

18 | Comparing samples - null hypothesis
Null hypothesis, probability theory, P values, statistical significance, one tailed tests, two tailed tests, type 1 error, type 2 error, power, clinical significance. [CA340] |

19 | Comparing samples - statistical tests
Analytical statistics, unpaired data, paired data, Chi-squared test, Fischer's exact test, McNemar's test, Mann-Whitney U test, Wilcoxon's rank sum test, Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA, Friedman test, Student's T test, ANOVA, contingency tables. [CA350] |

20 | Comparing samples - risks and odds
Risk, experimental event rate, control event rate, absolute risk reduction, relative risk, relative risk reduction, numbers need to treat / harm, odds, odds ratio. [CA370] |

21 | Relationships between variables
Scatter graphs, correlation, positive correlation, negative correlation, correlation coefficients, Pearson correlation coefficient, Spearman rank correlation coefficient, Kendall correlation coefficient, regression, regression line, regression equation, simple linear regression, multiple linear regression. [CA390] |

CLINICAL CHECKLISTS | |

22 | Introduction to the checklist presentations
Brief introduction to the checklist section of the online course. [CA600] |

23 | Aetiological studies
Checklist approach to appraising aetiological studies. No new factual material in this presentation. Also included: a sample checklist handout and a sample PowerPoint presentation. [CA610] |

24 | Diagnostic studies
Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, likelihood ratio for a positive test, likelihood ratio for a negative test, pre-test probability, pre-test odds, post-test odds, post-test probability, serial testing, parallel testing, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Also included: an Excel spreadsheet for calculations, a sample checklist handout and a sample PowerPoint presentation. [CA620] |

25 | Treatment studies
Checklist approach to appraising treatment studies. No new factual material in this presentation. Also included: a sample checklist handout and a sample PowerPoint presentation. [CA630] |

26 | Prognostic studies
Prognostic factors, risk factors, survival analysis, censored observations, Kaplan Meier method, Kaplan Meier curve, cumulative survival probability, median survival time, endpoint probability, hazard, hazard ratio. Also included: a sample checklist handout and a sample PowerPoint presentation. [CA640] |

27 | Systematic reviews and meta-analyses
Systematic review, meta-analysis, weighting, forest plot, homogeneity, heterogeneity, Chi-squared statistic, z statistic, fixed effect model, random effect model, funnel plot, publication bias. [CA700] |

POST COURSE | |

a | Download a reflective practice form for your portfolio. |

b | Contact the helpdesk if you need a CPD certificate of completion. |

c | Contact the helpdesk with any feedback you have about the course. |